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Excavators

One of the most commonly used machines in the Construction industry, the excavator is a heavy piece equipment used to excavate or move large objects. An excavator is essentially made up of 2 parts: a driving base and a powerful boom arm with an attachment designed for excavating. Excavators come in different shapes and sizes depending on the use. The main advantage of excavators is to improve efficiency and productivity by reducing operating costs.

Use of Excavators in Construction                                                                             

  • Digging of trenches, holes, foundations

  • Demolition

  • Material handling

  • General grading/landscaping

  • Brush cutting with hydraulic attachments

  • Forestry work

  • Lifting and placing of pipes

  • Mining

  • River dredging

Types of Excavators

  • Compact Long Reach

    • Wheeled machines that are enhanced by hydraulic fluid powered by hydraulic cylinders. This type of excavator consists of a work group, under carriage and house.

  • Crawlers

    • The type of excavator is the most well-known kind and is the main type on the market. Crawlers are very large and are built to release heavy work such as mining.

  • Dragline

    • There are two main types of draglines, lifting cranes and heavy duty built on site machines

      • Lifting Cranes; used for civil engineering tasks such as road, pond and port construction

      • Heavy Duty Machines; used mainly in the mining of tar and sand

  • Power Shovels

    • Also known as front shovels, stripping shovels, or electric mining shovels

    • Power shovels are primarily used for mining activities such as coal mining

  • Suction Excavators

    • Also known as a vacuum excavator

    • Used for safely identifying and removing underground elements

    • Lifts and clears debris on land through its suction pipe

Excavator Attachments

  • Augers

    • Standard augers are capable of most digging tasks. However, for tough digging conditions augers with Tungsten, Carbide, or Diamond teeth may be required.

  • Breakers

    • Used for tough jobs such as breaking stone or concrete.

  • Buckets

    • Usually made of hard steel with teeth on the digging edge, to guarantee maximum digging and scooping performance.

      • Ditching Bucket: Designed for grading stones, normally on large-scale projects

      • Trenching Bucket: Designed for digging trenches quickly and effectively

  • Clamp  

    • Allows operators to pick up large material such as concrete, tree stumps, etc. that would not normally fit in the bucket.

  • Flail Mower

    • Used for landscaping operations such as chopping tall grass or shrubs where an average mower wouldn’t make the cut. This attachment can be angled to use as a shrub or hedge trimmer. The flails are designed to bounce off of immobile objects.

  • Grapples

    • Used for picking up large pieces or amount of material; some are designed for tough construction jobs and others for waste handling operations.

Winter Storage Preparation Tips

  • Thoroughly clean the machine and engine compartment of grease and debris

  • Lubricate the excavator as needed

  • Lightly grease any exposed cylinder rods

  • Inspect cutting edges and teeth on bucket for wear or damage

  • Check hoses for nicks, cuts and patches; replace as needed

  • Identify workgroup bushings that need repaired

  • Check the condition of the seals and bushings on the pivot points

  • Check engine accessory belt(s) for wear

  • Check engine oils, coolant, fuel and hydraulic levels

  • Disconnect the battery and store in a cool, dry place above 32 degrees Fahrenheit

  • Inspect hoses fittings and hardware on attachments

Excavator Undercarriage Maintenance Tips

  • Properly clean the undercarriage at the end of each work day

  • Complete a full undercarriage inspection for excessive or uneven wear

    • Drive motor

    • Drive sprockets

    • Main idlers and rollers

    • Rock guards

    • Track bolts

    • Track chains

    • Track shoes

    • Track tension

  • Check tracks for any components that may be out of place

  • Inspect rollers, idlers and drives for oil leakage

Certain jobsite duties can create more wear on excavator tracks and undercarriages than others. Follow these tips to minimize wear:

  • Make wider turns: Sharp turns or pivoting can lead to accelerated wear and escalate the potential for de-tracking.

  • Minimize time on slopes: Constant operation on a slope or hill in one direction can speed up wear. To reduce track wear, be sure the drive motor is in the correct position

  • Avoid harsh environments: Rough asphalt, concrete, or other coarse materials can damage the tracks.

  • Reduce unnecessary spinning: Track spinning can lead to wear and decrease productivity, make wide, less destructive turns.

  • Choose the correct shoe width: Select the appropriate shoe width depending upon the weight of the machine and application. More narrow excavator shoes are ideal for hard soil and rocky conditions due to their soil penetration and grip. Wide excavator shoes generally work well in soft underfoot conditions because they have more flotation with lower ground pressure.

  • Choose the right grouser: The number of grousers per shoe will be contingent on the application.  Normally, the greater number of grousers the track has, the more contact the track has with the ground, vibration is reduced and the track will last longer in harsher conditions.

 

[Links to Equipment Type Guides/Manuals]

[Links to Equipment Type Video]

Common Excavator Manufacturers

ACM

AIRMAN

AKERMAN

AMMANN YANMAR

ARGENTERIO

ATLAS

BADGER

BANTAM

BELL

BENATI

BOBCAT

BROYT

BUCYRUS-ERIE

CASE

CASE POCLAIN

CAT

 

DAEWOO

DEERE

DEMAG

DEMLONE

DETANK

DITCH WITCH

DOOSAN

DOOSAN DAEWOO

DRESSER

DROTT

EDER

ERLING

ETEC

EUROCOMACH

EUROMACH

FIAT HITACHI

FIAT KOBELCO

FIATALLIS

FUCHS

FURUKAWA

GALLMAC

GEHL

GRADALL

GURIA

HALLA

HANIX

HEIN-WERNER

HIDROMEK

HINOWA

HITACHI

HYUNDAI

IHI

IHIMER

INGERSOLL-RAND

INSLEY

INTERNATIONAL

JCB

JONYANG

JSW

KAISER

KATO

KAWASAKI

KOBELCO

KOEHRING

KOMATSU

KUBOTA

LIEBHERR

LINK-BELT

LITTLE GIANT

LIUGONG

MDI/YUTANI

MECALAC

MENZI MUCK

MINI GIANT

MITSUBISHI

MUSTANG

NEUSON

NEW HOLLAND

NEW HOLLAND KOBELCO

NISSAN (1)

O & K (23)

P & H

PEL JOB

POCLAIN

R B INTERNATIONAL

RH&M

RHINO

RUSTON-BUCYRUS

SAMSUNG

SANY

SCATTRAK

SCHAEFF

SENNEBOGEN

SHANTUI

SIMIT

SOLMEC

SUMITOMO

SUNWARD

TAKEUCHI

TEREX

TEREX ATLAS

TESMEC

THOMAS

TOMEN

VERMEER

VOLVO

WACKER NEUSON

WARNER-SWASEY

WILCO

XCMG

XGMA

YANMAR

YUCHAI

YUMBO

ZEPPELIN

ZOOMLION



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